1) Specific uses of DNA testing
With pure sample of DNA one can analyze forensic evidence, in forensic evidences; forensics uses the DNA sequences to spot individuals for legal purposes. It is never used for detecting genes mutations that can be associated with genetic diseases. These tests are instrumental in the identification of individuals who are involved in crimes and or establish biological connections between people. For example when pregnant women make claims over the paternity of their children. One of the significant roles of DNA testing is to determine the parent of a child. The results of the tests are 100% effective making it one of the most reliable and trusted procedures (Hart, 2002).
DNA testing is also instrumental in the analysis of cases cancer, the DNA is used to study the genes that causes cancer in patients. Cancer research is an important aspect of research on oncology being (Pfeifer & Ovid, Technologies, 2006).
2) The structure and location of DNA
DNA is found inside cell, all living things have cell and all cell have DNA inside them. The human cell has a nucleus, and each nucleus is made up of almost two meters of DNA… the DNA IS made up of short, medium and long strands
3) Meaning and process of DNA replication.
DNA replication is a process by which the DNA copies of DNA are made through biological process in the nucleus of cells
Initiation: the helicase unwinds and separates the DNA strands
Elongation: RNA lay down the primers, then the DNA lays down the nucleotides, then the strands at the front continues to the next step while the strands at the back are discontinued
Termination: DNA nucleotides replace the RNA primers, and then the DNA ligase joins with the phosphodiester bonds, finaly the halikase rewinds the DNA
3a) mutation can occur during replication because during replication, some mistakes might occur leading to the loss of the nucleotides and codons. Mutation is a process by which the DNA sequences changes permanently, mutation in the DNA sequences is caused one of the two processes outlined below:
DNA damage from environmental agents
Environmental agents have a damaging impact on the DNA sequences, for example, ultraviolet light such us the bright sunshine damages the sequences of the DNA on human skin. Other environmental agents include the nuclear radiation and various types of chemical that interfere with the sequences of the DNA. The environmental agents of mutation alter the makeup sequence of the amino acids, of the proteins that are encoded by the genes agents. Mutations in a gene’s DNA sequence can alter the amino acid sequence of the protein encoded by the gene. The genes are what are responsible for the total process of the makeup of the amino acids and thus the proteins. The pattern involves the alteration of the nucleotide bases. This alteration has impact in the structure of the final DNA, making it lose its specificity.
Altering nucleotide bases so that they look like other nucleotide bases.
When a cell copies its DNA in preparation for replication, there are technicalities that occur that might include incomplete process. The incomplete processes creates gaps, that sum up to affect the general structure of the DNA, the nucleolus, the amino acid and the protein
1) PCR mimics replication process
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is useful in the Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). This PGD the embryo is analyzed before it is implanted. In this way the chance of conception for those mothers who are at risk of transferring hereditary disorders is limited
2) PCR steps
The cyclic reactions are done for 30 or 40 cycles
Step1: Denaturation at 94°C
Step 2: Annealing at 54°C
Step 3: extension at 72°C
3) Through PCR, enough DNA is amplified and multiple tasks that might require larger amount of DNA can be carried out. Sufficient DNA can be amplified and multiple tasks which need abundant DNA can be performed. Moreover, Whole Genome Amplification products can be useful for the analysis of the multi-loci and multiple genes during the following DNA analysis
4) The chromatics this is the part that is responsible for storing hereditary information
The centromere is responsible for joining the chromatins together
A gene is the part of a DNA responsible for storing hereditary features
6. Briefly describe the breakdown in protein synthesis in Fragile X.
During transcription, protein is synthesized, the synthesized protein moves into the cell cytoplasm for translation. The transfer RNA of the amino acid, then changes the messenger RNA into proteins. The protein synthesis in the fragile X is Brocken down when the fragile X mutation blocks synthesizes the FMRP (Watson, & Berry, 2004).
Fragile ix is a condition that occurs when the human genes are not able to produce the right codes for the protein that is responsible for the production of the mental development, this lead to mental retardation, the protein in question is the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). Even though this protein is made in various tissues, it is produced in large quantities in the testes and the brain. Its main role is in the cell to cell communication, especially in the human brain. Lack of this lead to mental retardation
1) Mutations affects the sequences of the DNA, they sequence translates into the wrong structure in the x chromosomes.
Hart, A. (2002). How to interpret your DNA test results for family history & ancestry: Scientists speak out on genealogy joining genetics. New York: Writers Club Press.
Pfeifer, J. D., & Ovid Technologies, Inc. (2006). Molecular genetic testing in surgical pathology. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.
Watson, J. D., & Berry, A. (2004). DNA: The secret of life. London: Arrow