Sodium is an element in the periodic table with the symbol Na ( Natrium in Latin

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Question 1

Sodium is an element in the periodic table with the symbol Na ( Natrium in Latin) (Thomas, 2005). The element is soft, silver white in color, highly reactive and has an atomic number 11. The element is among members of the alkali metals. The element has an electronic configuration of 2,8,1 and it exists as a solid (Tocci, 2005). It has a melting point of 371K and a boiling point of 1156K (Tocci, 2005). Sodium which has an electronic structure of 1s22s22p63s1 forms ionic bonds when the element reacts with non-metals such as chlorine (sodium chloride), carbon dioxide (sodium carbonate) and the reaction is usually exothermic (Thomas, 2005).

Question 2

The atom is termed as the basic unit of matter. The atom is made up of the nucleus which is centrally placed in the atom. The major components of an atom are the protons, electrons and neutrons (Bizony, 2007). The electrons are negatively charged and they surround the nucleus in form of a cloud. The major three subatomic particles determine the total charge of the atom (Cregan, 2009). Protons are located in the nucleus and their mass surpasses the mass of electrons. When compared to neutrons, protons appear to be lighter than the neutrons. The positive charges produced by the protons balance with the negative charges produced by electrons. Neutrons are as well located in the nucleus. A combination of the neutrons and protons held determine the mass number of the atom (Cregan, 2009). They are stable when within the atom. Electrons on the other hand carry the negative charge and exist in the orbital cloud in the atom. Electro-magnetive forces are essential in containing electrons inside the atom (Bizony, 2007).

Question 3

The FDA’s centre for drug and research (CDER) carries out an extensive and in-depth analysis to ensure that before a drug is allowed to be used by the public all the necessary research has been conducted to ensure the drug has no serious side effects to the patients (Seaman, 2006). Several tests are done and data as well as evidence recorded to prove that the drug meets the required set standards and also can treat the specific ailment fully without exposing the patient to another health risk. The steps taken before a drug is approved are as follows;

The first one is the research phase. In this phase, before a drug is allowed to be used by the public, the drug undergoes synthesization and purification processes. Tests are performed on animals and the recommendations analyzed on the way forward. If the approvals are appropriated by the FDA, clinical tests commence (Seaman, 2006).

In the clinical phase, the drug is first tested on humans who can be volunteers or patients. The phase analyses and establishes the manner in which the drug interacts with the human body in terms of metabolism, structure-reactivity interactions and possible side effects.

Phase three involves conducting clinical trials and tests in order to identify the effects and safety standards of the drug. Through clinical tests, the institutional review boards (IRBs) and advisory committees come into effect. The IRBs have a mandate to protect the welfare and rights of people participating in the clinical trials (Seaman, 2006). On the other hand, the CDER delegates the advisory committee to obtain opinions and advice about the drug in the pipeline.

In the application process is sponsor/s of the newly developed drug make an application to the FDA for approval of the use of the drug to the USA by submitting the NDA (New Drug Application). The NDA encompasses results and analysis obtained from the trials (Primak, 2008). The tests must convince that the drug is safe and fit for human use. Tests for drugs can take a period close to 8 years.

The potential experimental drugs are the next phase. The 8 year period required to test the drug, some patients who are critically ill would prefer to take the drug before the 8 year period lapses. At this stage, the policies are created to accommodate these persons. The Treatment Investigational New Drug and parallel track mechanism ensures that drugs that may be of critical help and are likely to have minimal side effects to be used to treat patients (Lichtenberg, 2009).

The last stage is the final actions where the FDA makes a decision whether to approve or disapprove the drug. Before approval, the drug has to meet two key questions which are;

Do the results obtained fulfill enough evidence of how effective the drug is?

Under explicit conditions, can the benefits of the drug outweigh the risks?

After effectively answering these questions the FDA decides whether to approve or disapprove the drug and allow it enter the market.

Question 4

The scientific method is a body of tactics used to investigate a phenomenon, obtain new knowledge to improve existing knowledge (Lichtenberg, 2009). The key element that differentiates scientific technique from other methods is the acquisition of knowledge and the best background studies of a scientific theory. The method aims at solving problems by analyzing all available possibilities and providing the best available solution.

The first step is to observe and question. Here curious observers ask a series of questions such as why is the sky blue? What is the best way of designing a drug to treat a particular ailment? To better understand the problem at hand, there is a necessity to keenly observe, contemplate and make use of reasoning abilities (Primak, 2008). For instance if an individual has a stain on her blouse, the question would be how does she remove the stain?

The second stage is the performance of background research. The research is meant to gather data about the topic. Several sources of data are utilized to gather data. An analysis is conducted to ensure that past errors relating to the topic are not repeated (Lichtenberg, 2009). Basing on the stain example illustrated above, materials required could be a detergent, water, vinegar and lemon juice.

The third phase is formulation of a hypothesis where possible theories and speculations that are formed to counter the problem at hand are analyzed to provide possible answers to the problem at hand. Hypotheses are designed to perform studies, experiments and therefore approve or disapprove scientific explanations. From the above example a hypothesis could be “If the above materials are used, the turmeric pigment will disappear”.

Stage four involves conducting of experiments. Here the hypotheses are verified to prove or disapprove the experiments carried out. Basing on the hypotheses, the experiment proves the genuineness of the propositions. The tests have to be conducted in the fair manner (Primak, 2008). The tests agree or object to the theory. The experimental phase involves the best available options and procedures of washing the stain.

Step 5 analyses the data and involves drawing of conclusions. Once the experiment is concluded, the hypothesis is checked if either it is true or false (Lichtenberg, 2009). This evaluation confirms if the hypothesis is interlinked with the experiment. If the two differ the scientific method is repeated but if they interlink and portray a good relationship, then the experiment moves to the conclusion phase. The conclusion sums up the results from the experiment vividly illustrate how the experiment relates to the hypothesis.

The final phase is the communication of the results. The results are conveyed to the public via a published final report. In the example illustrated, the findings could be “the best and effective way of eliminating the turmeric stain is done by using lemon juice, detergent, and water and lemon juice. The scientific method tries to provide a scientific perspective of an experiment and ensure that the results can be scientifically proven. The results should be proved using scientific experiments.


Bizony, P. (2007). Atom. Thriplow: Icon.

Cregan, E. R. (2009). The atom. Mankato, MN: Compass Point Books.

Lichtenberg, F. R. (2009). Response to Baker and Fugh-Berman’s critique of my paper, “Why has longevity increased more in some states than in others?”. Munich: Univ., Center for Economic Studies.

Primak, G. (2008). Let’s do science today!: step-by-step investigations that build scientific method skills. Greensboro, NC: Education Center.

Seaman, J. (2006). Guidance for industry recommendations for submission of chemical and technological data for direct food additive petitions. College Park, MD?: U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.

Thomas, M. (2005). Sodium. New York: Rosen Central.

Tocci, S. (2005). Sodium. New York: Children’s Press.

Treatment Method for Fermi Barrel Sodium Metal Residues. (2005). Idaho Falls, Idaho: Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory ;.

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