Social Contract Theory




Date of Submission

Social Contract Theory

Social contract theory describes the morals and political obligations of an individual. The contract among two parties in the society plays a vital role in building relationship, in the community. Social contract theory has association with modern political theory that give morals of living among people. Thomas Hobbes and John Locke defend the full exposition of social contract theory. Thoughts of Hobbes and Locke are influential towards development of theories that are dominant on political and moral arena. Perspectives of philosophers are on developing a criticism on social contract theory. The incomplete picture of the moral and political lives gets complete through the analysis and critics of Hobbes and Locke. Political and moral life camouflages the way of living in order to create the life in the world. The line of argument to describe, analyse and criticize is from Hobbes that human life is poor, nasty, short and solitary in a state of nature.

Hobbes philosophy began in 1600 and described conflict in the modern generation of the twenty-first century. Hobbes support monarchism and parliamentary method of leadership. The authority of God towards giving obligations on leadership is the major cause of change in the society. Religious obligations involve obeying God and political obligations involve submissiveness towards the democratic leadership. Human life depends on the social aspect that gets created through political and religious interaction within the society. Common sharing on the religious aspect creates the concept of social contract theory. A spiritual person creates an agreement with God towards fulfilling the needs of the Biblical teachings. Political aspect involves respecting the government decisions and making contracts towards abiding by the laws of the governing body in the society.

The social contract theory has a different understanding on Hobbes thoughts. Hobbes divides the theory into two parts: human motivation and social contract. Human motivation has psychological aspects that assist in the creation of the social contract. Social contract theory has a basis on the hypothesis present in nature such as morality and politics. Morality and politics create the philosophy of masterpiece in the nature of human life. Macro-behaviours present in human beings have motivational aspect that lead in the creation of motion. Extend of human behaviour has invisible aspect such as walking, liking, talking and producing actions. Chains that cause effects in human give rise on human behaviour that result in observable actions. Creation of universal laws that define nature and motions has a gradual effect on the integration of human memory towards creation of a good state of living. Human memory is essential in expression and explanation of inertia forces within a person.

Sensory information ensures human have impressions that slow down the life complications and defines mechanisms of responding to different stimuli. Human beings are complicated and require universal laws in order to efficiently define individual’s nature. Mechanisms of human nature define the quality of human psychology towards subjective nature of normative claims. Human psychology creates emotions of love and hates that result in instances of stimuli response. The term ‘good’ and ‘bad’ are common in human thoughts; that result in describing the appetite of a version. The moral terms that describe the objective state create affairs of reflection on individual taste and preference. Subjectivisms of human individuals define the mechanistic theory that creates a difference in human nature. Human nature has an exclusive interest on necessary measures in the society. Individual has interest on objects that are beneficial for life and that draws interest of improvement.

Human desires have repelling effect on objects that may cause harm or detrimental effects in life. The universal claim of human nature and life cover all the human actions that have different circumstances in the society. Society has the role of converting strangers into friends though acceptance of societal norms. Societal norms generalize the human desires that define power and status of individuals. Humans have natural appreciative mood that genuinely grow in human thoughts. Hobbes also views human obligations lead in adults caring for children for fulfilment of self-interest. Self-interest is reasonable as it defines the state of nature of human life. Rational thoughts lead in the creation of desires of maximal possibilities in life and reasons for the subjective nature of value. Life requires government in order for it to exist because government help in solving some of the life disadvantages.

Human beings should agree with the government especially in solving some of the life statutes such as poverty and solitary. The anarchy method of leadership is detrimental towards the social contract since it does not agree with the proper form of governance and obligations of the citizens. Hobbes philosophical project resolve on human life and governance. Governance uses scientific principles in the creation of stable and self-reliant society. People should accept living in political chaos that result due to the vulnerability of internal dissent. Absolutism does not solve all the statues of nature towards human life. Monarchy versus democracy is the lingering question in the mind of Hobbes. Monarchy has no limits towards power division and may create a very liberal society. Democracy has defined laws that limit loss of power or division among the ruling coalitions. Importance of democracy is consistence in legislation and enforcement in taxation.

Incidences of collapse are rare in a democratic nation due to the presence of limitations. Solving disputes is also easy due to the presence of defined laws and orders. Limits may occur due to the government transgression result in dispute diversification and lack of a permanent solution. Incidences present in Hobbes analysis for the state of nature of human life have similarities with those of John Locke. Locke gives authority on the sovereign power towards brutal utterance of state of nature. State of nature is intolerable and rational men cannot manage to live on it. Human require a willing heart and lack of selfishness towards generation of solutions towards poverty among human beings. Nature varies in human beings and requires absolute understanding in order to provide lasting solutions. The methodological devices that define the state of nature have virtual understanding on social contract theories.

Citizens do not have rights to revolt against monarchy mode of leadership. Human thoughts and influence from societal bodies results in a change of perception of the mode of governance. State of nature has influence on the development of democratic revolutions that led in the present States of America. Influential political writings results in divisions on the ruling government. One of the divisions in the ruling government creates concern on the exclusive arguments that have influence on political and religious authority. Individuals should not have freedom or get a license of living freely and doing anything that pleases human thoughts. State of nature has rights of punishing people for violating civil rights and transgression of human laws. Civil authority and human laws base the judgement on morality aspect in the human life. Pre-political and pre-moral do not have equality for judgement.

Human laws aim ad discovery of human life that is healthy, lively and have possessions. Aspect of God plays a vital role in the creation of moral issues that define the rightful nature of human beings. God formulated laws that condemn people on harming fellow human being. Peaceful coexistence with fellow human being is the ultimate goal of Locke philosophy. Peace creation neither harms individuals in the society nor creates plans of discrimination. Restrictions imposed on human being provide peaceful coexistence that result in efficient corrective measures. Devolvement of state of nature results in solving the dispute that forms due to wars in the society. Liberty of individuals has possibilities of creating harm on fellow human being and deterioration of societal morals. Killing is against the government and societal morals. Individuals that cause crimes such as killing should have strong reasons for conducting the act.

Democratic government have choices of abandoning the individuals or contracting the individuals on heavy punishment. State of nature has arguments towards private property that creates the aspect of social contract theory. Private property emerges due to a mixture of human labour and laws governing the societal norms. Land is essential in the provision of food and place of living. Humans have the mandate of utilizing the land and exploiting the natural resources without violating the societal norms. Justifiable arguments on the law of nature occur after failure of utilizing the basic natural resources present in the land. Property ownership links the argument of the social contract with the civil government. Property requires protection that is present through collaboration with the civil government in order not to abandon the state of nature. State of nature considers the conditions of each towards ability of maintenance. Family ties assists in strengthening the need of ownership and creation of social contracts.

Criticizing the argument on the state of nature, there is a need of understanding the political aspect of the society and human view towards the societal norms. Problems on property rights require intervention of civil government in order to comply with the claims. Ownership is limited in a democratic government since individuals should have a civil right of owning a property. Respect on property rights requires obligations from the government and society values. God is the overall overseer on the humanities ‘ aspects taking place in a democratic society. Different intuitions result in the creation of doubts that result in the breakdown of societal norms.

Real freedom does not exist and legitimate government does not provide freedom on the citizens. Government has the role of protecting property ownership and rights. Poverty is the major cause of denial of property ownership. People should work hard to earn a living and society does not encourage laziness among the citizens. Businessmen have legitimate powers of controlling the economy through making great business decisions. The social contracts are familiar in the society and revolve on ownership and property rights. Declaration of the ownership inspires members of the society towards acquiring a property through rightful legal methods. Many social contracts are successful and create confidence among the members of the society.