Part 1: Introduction Part 2: Local and State Roles in Response to Disaster Part 3: Managing the Response Function Part 4: Acquiring and Coordinating Federal Assistance Part 5: Recovery Function and Federal Assistance Programs Part 6: Summary
Emergencies occur in our communities every day. The large majority of these are easily managed by local first responders using the resources available to them. However, when disaster strikes, these resources can quickly become overwhelmed, requiring outside assistance. In this module, we will discuss the emergency management functions of response and recovery, and the ways in which local communities can plan and prepare for all incidents, large and small. We will discuss the processes a local or state emergency manager must initiate in order to obtain resources beyond those locally available.
We will also review the steps a state governor must take in order to get the federal government to issue a presidential disaster declaration. This declaration ensures the protection of the sovereign rights of the state while permitting the federal government to act in the interest of public safety. Obtaining this declaration would seem a complicated process, but it is actually quite straightforward, and is done numerous times each year across the country.
From 1990 to 2006, the United States experienced 823 presidential disaster declarations (an average of forty-eight per year), as illustrated in figure 4.2. Knowing approximately how many declarations the president will make each year, emergency managers can develop plans and estimates to identify the resources they have, and those they would need in the event of a large-scale disaster.
Figure 4.2 Presidential Disaster Declarations by Year, 1990–2006
Based on information from FEMA, 2007, FEMA Web site
The recovery phase of any disaster is almost always the longest in duration, and the most costly. It may take years, or even decades, for a community to restore its critical infrastructure, or for the economy to bounce back to the point at which the community is self-sufficient. In our final discussion in this module, we will review some federal financial support programs that can help individuals and governments during the recovery phase of a disaster.
Despite our best efforts in performing the functions of mitigation and preparedness, we cannot prevent most disasters. Our best hope is that the groundwork we have laid will minimize the effects of a disaster when it occurs. Additionally, we can hope that our planning efforts have given us an accurate idea of the damage we can expect from various types of disasters, and that we have obtained the resources required to quickly respond to an incident and to restore the community to normal.
The response function begins the moment a threat is perceived (whether natural or man-made). The emergency management organization may receive indicators of a hazard or threat prior to the event. If the organization receives a warning of an imminent emergency or disaster, it can respond by positioning response assets, moving people and property out of harm’s way, and notifying citizens of the situation. Without such an alert, the organization must rely on pre-event planning and response resource preparedness.
Local Response Capabilities
When an emergency occurs in a community, the first responders to the incident are invariably neighbors and volunteers, followed immediately by local police, fire department, and emergency medical services (EMS) personnel, and other civil responders. Typically, emergencies are managed using local resources, without assistance from the emergency management organization. Local resources act according to previously developed Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) or a community Emergency Operations Plan (EOP).
For example, the response to a motor vehicle accident occurring on the highway will begin with a call to the emergency 911 center. Once the 911 operator has determined the severity of the accident, he or she will dispatch local resources from law enforcement, fire, and EMS agencies. If the accident requires additional resources (e.g., the power company needs to fix downed power lines from a struck pole), the responding units on the scene will communicate back to the 911 center to initiate a request.
Our communities manage such events every day through the actions of first responders. If an incident becomes so large or complicated as to overwhelm local response teams, however, the emergency management organization may need to acquire additional resources. Any emergency severe enough to be considered a disaster will quickly exhaust local resources, and will necessitate the deployment of state and/or federal resources for effective management.
However, citizens and local response agencies should plan on practicing self-reliance during the first three days of a disaster. Federal assistance is based on a response plan that aims to have resources in the area within seventy-two hours of a large-scale disaster.
Regional and State Response Capabilities
All fifty states, the six U.S. territories (American Samoa, Guam, the Mariana Islands, the Marshall Islands, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands), and the District of Columbia have some type of Emergency Management Office (EMO). Although the names of the different offices and their positions within state government vary from locale to locale, each has the same responsibility: to develop and coordinate a statewide EOP.
Some EMOs function as an independent agency within state government, reporting directly to the governor. Others serve as a component of the state’s military department or homeland security office. This latter type of arrangement appears to be a trend in states transitioning toward an all-hazard approach encompassing both natural disasters and terrorist events.
As directed by the U.S. Constitution, each governor is responsible for the public safety of the people within his or her state or territory. As a condition for receiving federal financial assistance for emergency management, governors must develop a state EOP and conduct preparedness activities to ensure that state resources are ready to respond to an incident occurring within their jurisdiction.
The federal government provides funding for a National Guard component for each state to assist the governor in these responsibilities. Although the National Guard remains a ready reserve unit of the U.S. Army and the U.S. Air Force, it is also one of the primary resources available to the state in a disaster response.
The assets of the National Guard include personnel, communications equipment, air and road transport vehicles and tools, construction and earth-moving equipment, and emergency supplies such as food, water, beds, blankets, and medical supplies. State emergency managers should regularly check the availability of these resources, however, as some may be deployed overseas in response to military mission requirements.
Each state’s EMO also maintains an Emergency Operations Center (EOC), a safe location for the management and coordination of disaster response activities. The EOC is the central point at which responding agencies coordinate their actions, and at which policy-making individuals receive status updates concerning the response efforts.
The EOC handles two primary tasks:
1. resource status management (deciding what resources are required and tracking them from acquisition to demobilization)
2. situational status management (collecting information from local response agencies and disseminating a common operating picture to all players that describes the incident status and the actions being taken)
The EOC also plays a vital role in disseminating information to the public through a Joint Information Center (JIC) that prepares releases for the community and disperses them among responding agencies to ensure the delivery of a consistent and accurate message.
The state EMO must assess local and state efforts to determine whether the response is effective, or whether resources are overstretched and need federal assistance. Based on damage assessment reports, the director of the EMO will determine whether or not the governor should make a state disaster declaration or request a presidential disaster declaration.
The Role of the Private Sector
As an emergency manager, you should note the vital role that the private sector plays in emergency response. Private companies own equipment and supplies that the government might need in the event of a disaster. Local and state emergency managers should make an inventory of these potential assets and prearrange contracts or agreements to use them as needed. Resources available from within the private sector include heavy equipment for excavation and cleanup, and tools for power generation, refrigeration, housing, etc.
The private sector also includes a large number of volunteer groups that play an active role in emergency response and recovery. The American Red Cross, the Salvation Army, and various religious organizations provide emergency shelters, clothing, food, and water as necessary. The Radio Amateur Civil Emergency Service (RACES) supports emergency managers by delivering backup communications capability via ham radio networks.
Many volunteer groups are organized under a state Voluntary Organizations Active in Disaster (VOAD) group. The national VOAD group (NVOAD) serves as the coordination center for these organizations. VOAD is a necessary component of disaster response, as it enables these groups to receive regular communications, training, and tasking through a central administrative contact.
Recognizing the role of private citizens in the first response to a disaster, FEMA has encouraged many state and local governments to establish Community Emergency Response Teams (CERTs). CERTs prepare communities to help each other through the use of education, publications, and equipment. They enable citizens take an active role in the outcome of an event, increasing their awareness of hazards and the actions required to ensure the safety of their families and neighbors.
CERT members become qualified through training and exercise programs to assist in providing emergency medical care, handling evacuation and sheltering, and performing light search and rescue activities. During an event that stretches local assets to the breaking point, CERT members serve as a vital reserve force to meet the community’s needs.
In order to avoid effort duplication and the unclear delineation of authority, emergency management organizations must have a mechanism in place to effectively manage resources. In this section, we will review the development of the Incident Command System (ICS), a tool used by emergency services for incident management, and the evolution of the ICS into a National Incident Management System (NIMS).
Incident Command System (ICS)
Managing the vast and varying resources needed during an emergency requires the means to command, control, and coordinate those resources. This challenge came to light for America’s fire service in the 1970s, after a series of conflagrations in Southern California resulted in a large number of homes lost. An after-action analysis of these fires pointed to a high level of effort duplication among the responding agencies, a lack of coordination and communication, and the absence of a single plan to guide all parties.
These findings led to the development of the Incident Command System (ICS) as a structure for managing the resources and activities required in the response phase of an incident or disaster. FEMA funded the development of Firefighting Resources of California Organized for Potential Emergencies (FIRESCOPE) in 1982 and adopted it as the model ICS for these types of incidents.
The Incident Command System (ICS) is characterized by the following six principles:
1. Unified command A single Incident Commander (IC) manages most incidents. A Unified Command (UC) team manages the response when multiple agencies or multiple jurisdictions share responsibility for the outcome.
2. Standardized organizational structure A common organizational structure is implemented in a modular manner for all incidents, large and small. Because it is modular, the organizational structure is also scalable and can be expanded if the complexity of the incident increases.
3. Manageable span of control Supervisors can effectively manage only a limited number of resources. The ICS recommends that no supervisor oversee more than three to seven resources, citing five as the optimal number.
4. Unity of command Similar to the above principle, this one holds that a subordinate should report to only one supervisor. This limits the potential for conflicting tasking during an operation.
5. Common terminology Resources from different disciplines or jurisdictions often adopt a local jargon to describe the tasks they perform or the resources they use to fulfill their mission. The ICS requires agencies and jurisdictions to adopt a common terminology to limit confusion at the incident location.
6. Management by objectives The IC or UC team develops a single Incident Action Plan (IAP) to define measurable objectives for each operational period, the resources required to complete these objectives, and the tasks assigned to each resource.
The Phoenix Fire Department later modified the FIRESCOPE model to manage structural firefighting activities, creating the Fire Ground Command (FGC) system. During the 1980s, fire service leaders debated the various merits of these systems. The National Fire Service Incident Management System Consortium (NFSIMSC) led a grassroots effort to merge the two ICSs into a single Incident Management System (IMS). These efforts and the disaster events of September 11, 2001, led to the formation of the National Incident Management System (NIMS) under the mandate of Homeland Security Presidential Directive 5 (HSPD-5).
The National Incident Management System (NIMS)
Following the horrific events of September 11, 2001, it became clear that the nation needed a single ICS model to manage large-scale disaster events. Responding agencies found themselves challenged by many of the issues that had plagued the fire service during the 1970s: duplication of effort, lack of coordination and communication, the absence of a single plan of action.
President George W. Bush signed HSPD-5 on February 28, 2003, requiring the newly established Department of Homeland Security (DHS) to develop a National Incident Management System (NIMS) to “provide a consistent nationwide approach for Federal, state, and local governments to work effectively and efficiently together to prepare for, respond to, and recover from domestic incidents, regardless of cause, size, or complexity” (White House, 2003, White House Web site).
The NIMS accounts for six vital components of incident management that must be fully integrated to ensure a successful response:
1. Command and management The NIMS provides for a standard ICS, plus the added capabilities of a Multiagency Coordination System (MACS) and the Public Information Systems (PIS). These three structures facilitate the management of an incident at the local level (ICS), the coordination of different agencies in the jurisdiction (MACS), and the coordination of response actions with the public (PIS).
2. Preparedness The NIMS recognizes that effective incident management begins with preparedness. Agencies and jurisdictions must ready resources for disaster response through planning, training, and exercises.
3. Resource management The NIMS provides for a standard method of describing, inventorying, mobilizing, tracking, and demobilizing the resources required during the lifecycle of an incident.
4. Communications and information management The NIMS recognizes the importance of reliable, interoperable communications at an incident scene. It also notes the need for responders to collect and disseminate information to make a common operating picture available to all responding elements.
5. Supporting technology The NIMS supports investment in research and development to obtain the technology required for disaster response and incident management.
6. Ongoing management and maintenance The NIMS Integration Center (NIC) provides guidance to state and local jurisdictions during NIMS implementation activities, continually refining NIMS policy and procedures according to feedback during and after disaster events.
Mutual Aid Assistance and Multiagency Coordination
The NIMS assumes that the resources of each jurisdiction are limited, and that a large-scale event will require resources beyond local capabilities. The NIMS encourages local jurisdictions to develop mutual aid agreements with surrounding jurisdictions (including other states) to share resources, facilities, and equipment in the event of a large-scale disaster. Jurisdictions may also establish these agreements with private or non-governmental organizations to define their role in disaster response and recovery. Mutual aid agreements should detail the
· roles and responsibilities of each participating organization
· procedures for implementing the mutual aid resource request
· rules for the payment and reimbursement of costs incurred during aid provision
· relationship between the mutual aid agreement and other agreements (i.e., local or state EOPs)
· treatment of liability or immunity issues
· qualifications and certifications of involved parties
Once a jurisdiction decides that the response to a disaster has exhausted local and state assets, it will ask the federal government to provide additional resources to ensure public safety and to assist in restoring vital services. The governor of the state will forward a letter to the president requesting a presidential disaster declaration. This is the first step in directing federal equipment, supplies, and personnel to a disaster site—and a necessary one, because without it, federal aid could not be activated. Upon the declaration of a disaster, the DHS, through FEMA, will bring together the resources of the federal government under the provisions of the National Response Plan (NRP).
It is important to note that some disasters can overwhelm the capabilities of both state and federal response assets. A catastrophic disaster, such as Hurricane Katrina, can cause such widespread destruction that even a huge amount of resources will not be able to immediately meet the needs of the citizens. Hurricane Katrina was the largest physical disaster this country has ever experienced. The storm affected more than 90,000 square miles of land, disrupted the lives of millions, and destroyed and degraded much of the area’s infrastructure.
In “normal” disasters, communities quickly obtain the help they need by looking to neighboring communities and states for assistance. In catastrophic disasters, neighboring communities all suffer equally. Emergency management depends on federal and Emergency Management Assistance Compact (EMAC) resources (described below).
To improve its response to catastrophic incidents, the federal government may have to find ways to shorten its seventy-two hour reaction time for those communities requiring immediate assistance. As we continue to evaluate lessons learned, we will work on refining our national response capabilities to address catastrophic disasters.
The National Response Plan (NRP)
As we previously noted, HSPD-5 required the development of the NRP to align and coordinate the federal resources called in to support response and recovery after a national incident. The NRP is built upon the framework of the NIMS, and sets forth guidelines for managing large-scale incidents that require federal assistance. The Stafford Act outlines the provisions for activating the NRP (discussed below).
The NRP was approved and released on December 2004, replacing the former Federal Response Plan (FRP), which primarily addressed the federal response to disasters; the Concept of Operations Plan (CONPLAN), which addressed the federal response to terrorism incidents; and several other federal response plans governing specific incident types. The new NRP provides a single all-hazard approach for defining the federal role in response to incidents of national significance.
It is important to note that both the NIMS and the NRP are under consideration for revision as a result of the lessons learned after Hurricane Katrina in 2005. A new version of the NIMS and a National Response Framework (to replace the NRP) are under internal review, with a release scheduled for the end of calendar year 2007.
In developing the NRP, the DHS incorporated the best practices and procedures from established plans from across many disciplines, including emergency management, homeland security, firefighting, law enforcement, public health, public works, EMS, and hazardous materials response. The DHS recognized that these disciplines already had working plans and procedures. What the United States needed was a single all-hazard response plan that would enable all of these disciplines to function together in an integrated coordinating structure.
To meet this need, the NRP promotes the organization of support functions and the delegation of responsibility to various federal agencies to facilitate the delivery of critical federal resources to an incident location. The NRP coordinates federal responsibilities through the assignment of Emergency Support Functions (ESFs).
Each ESF provides a coordination mechanism for the function assigned. Under the NRP, each ESF is assigned to a group of primary and support agencies based on legal authority, resources, and capabilities. The NRP requires that ESFs support one another to form a cohesive response to the emergency incident. ESFs may direct staff to the National Response Coordination Center (NRCC), the Regional Response Coordination Center (RRCC), a Joint Field Office (JFO), or an Incident Command Post (ICP) as required to provide the necessary support (more information on these below).
Many states have adopted the ESF model and have organized their EOCs in line with it to better manage state resources and to allow for the seamless integration of local and federal responders.
Table 4.1 lists the federal ESF structures and responsibilities as defined by the NRP (DHS, 2004, p. 12 and ESF annexes):
Table 4.1 Federal ESF Structure
|ESF #1||Transportation||Department of Transportation (DOT)||· federal and civil transportation support · transportation safety · restoration/recovery of transportation infrastructure · movement restriction easement · damage and impact assessment|
|ESF #2||Communications||DHS, Information Analysis and Infrastructure Protection (IAIP) Directorate and National Communications System (NCS)||· coordination with telecommunications industry · restoration/repair of telecommunications infrastructure · protection, restoration, and maintenance of national cyber and information technology resources|
|ESF #3||Public Works and Engineering||Department of Defense (DoD)/U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE)/DHS, Emergency Preparedness and Response/FEMA||· infrastructure protection and emergency repair · infrastructure restoration · engineering services, construction management · critical infrastructure liaison services|
|ESF #4||Firefighting||U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Forest Service||· firefighting support on federal lands · provision of resources to rural and urban firefighting operations|
|ESF #5||Emergency Management||DHS, Emergency Preparedness and Response/FEMA||· coordination of incident management efforts · issuance of mission assignments · resource and human capital management · incident action planning · financial management|
|ESF #6||Mass Care, Housing, and Human Services||DHS, Emergency Preparedness and Response/FEMA/American Red Cross||· mass care · disaster housing · human services|
|ESF #7||Resource Support||General Services Administration (GSA)||· resource support (for facility spaces, office equipment and supplies, contracting services, etc.)|
|ESF #8||Public Health and Medical Services||Department of Health and Human Services (HHS)||· public health · medical services · mental health services · mortuary services|
|ESF #9||Urban Search and Rescue||DHS, Emergency Preparedness and Response/FEMA||· life-saving services · urban search and rescue|
|ESF #10||Oil and Hazardous Materials Response||Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)/DHS/U.S. Coast Guard (USCG)||· oil and hazardous materials (chemical, biological, radiological, etc.) response · environmental safety and short- and long-term cleanup|
|ESF #11||Agriculture and Natural Resources||USDA/Department of the Interior (DOI)||· nutritional assistance · animal and plant disease/pest response · food safety and security · natural and cultural resources and historic properties protection and restoration|
|ESF #12||Energy||Department of Energy (DOE)||· energy infrastructure assessment, repair, and restoration · energy industry utilities coordination · energy forecasts|
|ESF #13||Public Safety and Security||DHS/Department of Justice (DOJ)||· facility and resource security · security planning and technical and resource assistance · public safety/security · traffic, access, and crowd control|
|ESF #14||Long-Term Community Recovery and Mitigation||DHS, Emergency Preparedness and Response/FEMA, with USDA/U.S. Department of Commerce (DOC)/Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD)/Department of the Treasury (TREAS)/Small Business Administration (SBA)||· social and economic community impact assessment · long-term community recovery assistance to states, local governments, and private sector · mitigation analysis and program implementation|
|ESF #15||External Affairs||DHS, Emergency Preparedness and Response/FEMA||· emergency public information and protective action guidance · media and community relations · congressional and international affairs · tribal and insular affairs|
Emergency Management Assistance Compact (EMAC)
As part of disaster planning and preparedness, states are encouraged to develop mutual aid agreements with surrounding states to share resources and capabilities. However, a large-scale disaster will impact a large region, and it may not be possible in such cases for jurisdictions to share assets. To help resolve this challenge, Congress passed legislation in 1996 providing for the creation of the EMAC. The Emergency Management Assistance Compact (EMAC) is an agreement that enables any state to provide resources to any other state in response to disaster needs.
The EMAC is administered through a private organization, NEMA. The National Emergency Management Association (NEMA) is a professional organization of emergency managers, established with the following mission (NEMA, 2007, NEMA Web site):
· to provide national leadership and expertise in comprehensive emergency management
· to serve as a vital emergency management information and assistance resource
· to advance continuous improvement in emergency management through strategic partnerships, innovative programs, and collaborative policy positions
To request resources via EMAC, a state broadcasts its requirements through the EMAC network to all other EMAC members (all other states). Any state that can provide a needed resource submits a reply with projected cost information. The requiring state reviews the proposals, then accepts offers as needed for the provision of equipment, supplies, or personnel. Costs are identified up front so that the requesting state can record them for potential reimbursement from the federal government if a disaster declaration is issued.
Since its establishment, the EMAC has been put to the test on several major disasters (West Coast wildfires, hurricanes, earthquakes, etc.), and has proved itself a cornerstone of the national mutual aid system. Emergency management organizations should always consider the EMAC during a disaster response and recovery operation.
Federal Response and Recovery Under the Stafford Act
Although mutual aid can supplement local resources in a disaster, the needs of the response may continue to outweigh the available assets. The assistance of the federal government is then required to help ensure public safety. As discussed above, the governor initiates the process of obtaining assistance with a request for a presidential disaster declaration. The president’s approval permits the activation of federal assets under the provisions of the NRP and the Stafford Act.
During module 2, we had the opportunity to review the Stafford Act from the perspective of the mitigation function. The Stafford Act authorizes federal agencies to provide technical assistance and grants in support of state and local pre-disaster planning, mitigation programs, and disaster response.
Figure 4.3 shows the flow of actions that occur before and during the activation of federal support under the Stafford Act:
Figure 4.3 Activation of Federal Disaster Support
Source: NRP, 2004, p. 93
The first step in requesting a presidential disaster declaration is the preparation of a preliminary damage assessment (PDA).
Based on the results of the PDA and other information provided, the Homeland Security Operations Center (HSOC) will evaluate the governor’s request and forward a recommendation to the secretary of the DHS. The secretary will make a recommendation to the president and, if necessary, initiate federal support as permitted by the NRP. The Stafford Act authorizes two types of declarations: emergency and major disaster.
1. Emergency declarations The president will make an emergency declaration if he or she determines that federal assistance is needed (usually to supplement state and local resources). The funding for emergency declarations is capped at $5 million per event.
2. Major disaster declaration The president will make a major disaster declaration if he or she determines that the damage has overwhelmed the combined capabilities of state and local authorities, and that federal assistance is required. This type of declaration enables the state to choose from a variety of federal assistance programs to perform emergency work, restore critical services, and rebuild the local infrastructure and economy.
After the president makes the declaration, the government will coordinate its actions through a Joint Field Office (JFO) led by a Principal Federal Official (PFO), with support from the Federal Coordinating Officer (FCO), State Coordinating Officer (SCO), and other officials who have statutory authority for the outcome of the response and recovery efforts. The government may deploy an Emergency Response Team (ERT) prior to the establishment of the JFO to address urgent issues affecting public safety (more on these offices and personnel below).
The best-prepared communities are ready to begin recovery efforts immediately after the initial response to a disaster. Often, a fine line distinguishes the end of response from the beginning of recovery. For the purposes of clarification, we will define response as the immediate actions taken to save lives, reduce property loss, and address basic citizen needs (food, shelter, etc.).
Recovery includes the actions taken to rebuild infrastructure (power, roads, bridges, etc.), repair/rebuild homes, and reestablish businesses and the local economy. Recovery is long-term in focus, and aims to restore the community as closely as possible to its previous state. The recovery phase may also include mitigation actions taken to prevent or reduce losses from future occurrences of the event.
The recovery function is the longest of all the phases of the emergency management cycle (except for those ongoing functions), and also the most costly. Restoring homes, buildings, and infrastructure would quickly empty the pockets of local homeowners, businesses, and governments if they had to cover the costs themselves. Recognizing that federal agencies must step in for a successful recovery, Congress has included provisions in the Stafford Act to provide financial support to individuals and governments. Once a presidential disaster declaration has been issued, local groups can obtain federal financial and technical assistance. Federal, state, and local governments; volunteer organizations; and the private sector can also form partnerships in enacting disaster recovery operations.
In the event of a presidential disaster declaration, the DHS will designate a Principal Federal Official (PFO) to coordinate federal actions in support of state and local governments and citizens. The PFO will establish a Joint Field Office (JFO) as a central coordinating point for federal assistance and technical support.
The JFO will be staffed by a Federal Coordinating Officer (FCO), a State Coordinating Officer (SCO), and other federal and state officials assisting in the coordination effort. The FCO and SCO will determine when the response phase has concluded and the recovery phase has begun. This distinction proves vital in disaster cleanup, as priorities, funding, and resource allocation change drastically in the transition from response to recovery. The JFO will also establish one or more Disaster Recovery Centers (DRCs) as satellite coordination points to assist local governments, businesses, and citizens with information on various programs and obtaining help.
After establishing the support structure described above, the federal government may provide financial assistance to local governments and citizens using three types of authorized disaster assistance programs:
1. individual assistance programs
2. public assistance programs
3. hazard mitigation assistance programs
Hazard mitigation assistance programs help fund mitigation efforts to reduce or minimize future losses. We discussed these programs in module 2. We will describe the other two assistance programs below.
Individual Assistance Programs
Through FEMA, the federal government manages individual assistance programs designed to help individuals, families, and small businesses obtain temporary housing, grants (for the repair or replacement of homes and property), disaster unemployment assistance, legal aid, and disaster crisis counseling. To receive assistance, an individual must register and make out an application to FEMA. Counselors staffed at either the JFO or the DRC can assist citizens in this process. When necessary, counselors or other staff personnel may perform outreach services and visit areas directly affected by the disaster to guide individuals through the registration and application process.
The primary source of individual assistance funding (outside of personal or homeowner’s insurance) is the Individuals and Households Program (IHP). The IHP provides funding for temporary housing, the repair or replacement of the home, and other temporary living expenses accrued after a disaster. IHP funds are not intended to replace personal or homeowner’s insurance, and will only cover gaps in insurance, or make up for losses that exceed the value of insurance coverage.
The IHP intends to render a home livable, but not necessarily to restore it to its previous condition or to make repairs that improve the property. Because of these limitations, homeowners are often faced with the difficult decision of whether to repair a home or abandon it. Repair costs can often exceed the financial aid provided by FEMA, and homeowners must often secure a loan to finance rebuilding.
If an individual finds him or herself unemployed as a result of a disaster, and does not have access to regular unemployment benefits, he or she may obtain help from the Disaster Unemployment Assistance (DUA) program. An individual may also request legal assistance in filing insurance claims, making out will and estate settlements, and resolving consumer protection issues. Other forms of individual assistance include crisis counseling and the granting of special tax considerations.
Public Assistance Programs
FEMA has the authority under the Stafford Act not only to help individuals, but to aid state and local governments. Public assistance programs fund the rebuilding of government and public infrastructure as well as mitigation projects directed at minimizing future losses. Eligible applicants include states and all political subdivisions thereof, Native American tribes, Alaska Native Villages, and certain private nonprofit groups, including educational, utility, irrigation, emergency, medical, rehabilitation, and temporary or permanent custodial care organizations, and other facilities open to the public that provide essential services of a governmental nature.
Once a disaster declaration has been issued, FEMA and the affected state (or states) will brief state, local, and nonprofit officials on eligibility and application requirements. These entities must submit a Request for Public Assistance within thirty days of the disaster declaration to receive funding. The federal government will cover seventy-five percent of the losses, unless damages are so extensive that FEMA and the president authorize a higher payment.
Table 4.2 shows the types of activities that may be financed with public assistance funding:
Table 4.2 Activities Covered by Public Assistance Funding
|Category A||Debris Removal||clearance, removal, and disposal of trees, sand/mud, building debris, wreckage, vehicles, and personal property|
|Category B||Protective Measures||protection of citizens’ health and safety, public buildings and property, and possibly emergency communications and emergency transportation|
|Category C||Roads and Bridges||permanent repair and replacement of roads and bridges, including road surfaces and bases, shoulders, ditches, and guardrails|
|Category D||Water Control Facilities||restoration of channels, pumping facilities, and irrigation facilities|
|Category E||Public Buildings||repair and replacement of public buildings, including furnishings and interior systems (water, electric, gas, etc.)|
|Category F||Public Utilities||restoration of water treatment and delivery systems, public electrical generation and distribution systems, sewage collection and treatment facilities, and publicly operated telecommunications systems|
|Category G||Recreational and Other||repair and restoration of parks, playgrounds, pools, cemeteries, and beaches|
Federal Loans and Technical Assistance in Recovery
In addition to providing individual and public assistance in the form of grants, the federal government also makes several loan programs available to individuals, businesses, and governments to aid in the recovery of buildings and property. Although most of these are triggered by a presidential disaster declaration as per the Stafford Act, some can be activated at the discretion of the controlling agency, if the agency determines loans to be in the best interest of the public. Federal agencies that provide assistance programs in support of recovery include the following:
· U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) The USACE provides technical and engineering assistance to state and local governments. It has historically aided in debris removal operations.
· Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) The HUD controls several grant programs to assist local, county, and state governments in recovery operations following a presidential disaster declaration. Community Development Block Grant (CDBG) and HOME programs offer financial support in reconstructing low-income and economically deprived areas.
· Small Business Administration (SBA) The SBA offers low-interest loans to individuals and businesses trying to rebuild after a disaster. SBA loans confer an advantage to the U.S. government in that the funds are repaid to the national treasury, as opposed to direct grants, in which the money is not recovered. These loans also benefit the homeowner, as the federal government will frequently award loans to individuals and businesses who may not be able to secure funding from a commercial bank.
· U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) The USDA provides low-interest loan assistance to farmers and ranchers to cover physical property and production loss.
· Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) As mandated by the NRP, the HHS addresses all health and medical issues relating to a disaster. HHS workers also manage the crisis counseling activities previously discussed.
· Department of Transportation (DOT) The DOT manages the Highway Trust Fund (HTF), a fund specifically established to provide aid for the repair and reconstruction of roads on federal lands. DOT also administers the Emergency Relief (ER) Program, which assists state and local governments in road reconstruction following a disaster.
· Department of Commerce (DOC) Within the DOC, the Economic Development Administration (EDA) runs programs to provide grants and technical assistance for the restoration of critical infrastructure.
· Department of Labor (DOL) The DOL administers the Disaster Unemployment Assistance (DUA) program, which helps those who have lost their jobs as a result of a disaster and who are ineligible for regular unemployment benefits. The DOL also administers National Emergency Grants (NEGs) as authorized by the Workforce Investment Act (WIA) to help restore the local economy through the creation of temporary jobs, and to provide employment assistance to dislocated workers.
We live in a world full of hazards. On a daily basis, most of these pose no risk to our citizens or their property. However, when disaster strikes, we are responsible for taking action quickly to reduce the loss of lives and property. In this module, we discussed the functions of response and recovery as they fit into the emergency management cycle. Although we always hope that we won’t have to implement these capabilities, we know from past experience that disaster can strike any time, anywhere, and that our mitigation and preparedness efforts cannot fully ready our organization for the full effects of a disaster. Our job as emergency managers includes that of understanding what steps to take when our resources become overwhelmed and we need assistance from the next level up (state or federal). The Stafford Act and the NRP can help direct our actions in these situations.
In the closing segment of this module, we studied the function of recovery. This is the “final” function in our emergency management cycle (in reality, the cycle starts again from the beginning, and mitigation is continuous). Recovery is the longest and most costly of all of the functions for which we are responsible. The federal government recognizes the challenges posed by this function, and has developed a variety of financial and technical assistance programs to aid individuals, businesses, and governments during the recovery phase.
We have now completed our discussion of all of the key functions of the emergency management organization. Each of our modules has only briefly touched upon the concepts of its specific function(s), as each could be a course of study in itself. Our goal has been to provide you with an introduction to each function and to help you develop a baseline of understanding upon which to build in further studies. In our final module, we will discuss some of the challenges that confront emergency management as we look to the future.
Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). (2007). Declared disasters by year or state. Retrieved May 2007 from www.fema.gov/news/disaster_totals_annual.fema
National Emergency Management Association (NEMA). Retrieved May 2007 from http://www.nemaweb.org/
U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS). (2004). National response plan (NRP). Retrieved May 2007 from http://www.fas.org/irp/agency/dhs/nrp.pdf
White House. (2003, February 28). Homeland Security Presidential Directive/HSPD-5. Retrieved March 2007 from http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/02/20030228-9.html