Mitochondrial replication, science homework help

(1)  Scientists employ ____________ reasoning when working from specific examples to discover general principles.

A.  addictive

B.  deductive

C.  inductive

D.  reductive

E.  abductive

Explain your answer:

(2)  Scientists employ ____________ reasoning when using general principles to make sense of specific examples.

A.  addictive

B.  deductive

C.  inductive

D.  reductive

E.  abductive

Explain your answer:

(3)  Adventitious roots are _________________.

A.  the main source of water and nutrient absorption for plants

B.  auxiliary structures that provide additional support for plants

C.  roots that sprout into new plants for the purpose of asexual reproduction

D.  the larger roots that provide the main branches of the root system

E.  the embryonic root of a plant

Explain your answer:

(4)  The general public often misinterprets the word “theory”. They should all be aware that a Scientific Theory is actually a:

A.  Simple idea that is commonly debated

B.  Suggested explanation for a supernatural phenomenon

C.  Educated guess about an untestable natural process

D.  Set of hypotheses that have been rigorously tested and not rejected

E.  None of the above

Explain your answer:

(5)  The growing tip of a root is called the _________ and is protected by the _________.

A.  apical meristem; a bud

B.  apical meristem; a root cap

C.  lateral meristem, root cap

D.  lateral meristem, a bud

E.  radicle; root cap

Explain your answer:

(6)  The Scientific Method is divided into 5 main steps. The fourth step is:

A.  Voodoo

B.  Prediction

C.  Observation

D.  Experiment

E.  Hypothesis

Explain your answer:

(7)  Plants with their seeds enclosed in a fruit are:

A.  Angiosperms

B.  Algae

C.  Ferns

D.  Gymnosperms

E.  Mosses

Explain your answer:

(8)  The two subclasses of flowering plants are:

A.  Vascular and non-vascular plants

B.  Angiosperms and gymnosperms

C.  Algae and mosses

D.  Ferns and conifers

E.  Monocotyledons and dycotyledons

Explain your answer:

(9)  Halloween pumpkins belong to the following plant family:

A.  Cucurbitaceae

B.  Solanaceae

C.  Asteraceae

D.  Brassicaceae

E.  Fabaceae

Explain your answer:

(10)  In order for plants to colonize the land, there were three major evolutionary steps. When listed in the order that they evolved, these are:

A.  Apical meristems, flowers, seeds

B.  Lateral meristems, seeds, flowers

C.  Vascular tissue, flowers, seeds

D.  Vascular tissue, seeds, flowers

E.  Lateral meristems, vascular tissue, flowers

Explain your answer:

(11)  Germ cells divide by a process called __________, while somatic cells divide by a process called ___________.

A.  segregation; fusion

B.  mitosis; meiosis

C.  segregation; fission

D.  fission; segregation

E.  meiosis; mitosis

Explain your answer:

(12)  The major permanent plant tissue types are:

A.  Cuticle, guard cells, stomata

B.  Dermal, ground, vascular

C.  Parenchyma, collenchyma, sclerenchyma

D.  Cuticle, tracheids, vessel elements

E.  Phloem, ground, xylem

Explain your answer:

(13)  An example of a plant’s meristem:

A.  Vascular cambium

B.  Xylem

C.  Phloem

D.  Cuticle

E.  Growth ring

Explain your answer:

(14)  Water and minerals are transported from plant roots to the leaves through the:

A.  Cambium

B.  Epidermis

C.  Phloem

D.  Plasma membrane

E.  Xylem

Explain your answer:

(15)  The products of photosynthesis (sugars) are transported from the leaves to the rest of the plant through the:

A.  Cambium

B.  Epidermis

C.  Plasma membrane

D.  Phloem

E.  Xylem

Explain your answer:

(16)  Which of the following is the correct order for the Latin system of plant taxonomy?

A.  Kingdom, Division, Order, Class, Family, Genus, Species

B.  Kingdom, Division, Family, Order, Class, Genus, Species

C.  Kingdom, Phylum, Family, Order, Class, Genus, Species

D.  Kingdom, Phylum, Order, Class, Family, Genus, Species

E.  Kingdom, Division, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species

Explain your answer:

(17)  In which step of the cell cycle do the chromosomes line up along the equatorial plane?

A.  Anaphase 

B.  Interphase 

C.  Metaphase

D.  Prophase

E.  Telophase

Explain your answer:

(18)  In which step of the cell cycle do the sister chromatids separate?

A.  Anaphase 

B.  Interphase 

C.  Metaphase

D.  Prophase

E.  Telophase

Explain your answer:

(19)  The following are all components of the plasma membrane, EXCEPT:

A.  Phospholipid

B.  Protein

C.  Lipid

D.  Carbohydrate

E.  Histone

Explain your answer:

(20)  Generally, somatic cells contain:

A.  One copy of every chromosome

B.  Two copies of every chromosome

C.  Replicated nucleosomes

D.  No chromosomes

E.  No DNA

Explain your answer:

(21)  During interphase, cells undergo:

A.  DNA replication

B.  Mitochondrial replication

C.  Microtubule synthesis

D.  Chromosome condensation

E.  All of the above

Explain your answer:

Section III

True/False questions.

Each question is worth one (1) point. Mark A for TRUE and B for FALSE. Explain why it is true or false.

(1)  Guard cells are epidermal cells that contain chloroplasts; this allows them to perform photosynthesis.

Why?

(2)  Inductive reasoning is used by scientists to develop hypotheses.

Why?

(3)  The use of Latin names creates confusion when trying to classify plants.

Why?

(4)  One of the differences between mitosis and meiosis is the occurrence of crossing over during mitosis.

Why?

(5)  For a cell it is advantageous to have a large surface-to-volume ratio.

Why?

(6)  Prokaryotes have a complex architecture. They possess nucleus and a variety of organelles.

Why?

(7)  A couple of differences between xylem and phloem cells are that xylem cells are dead at maturity and have thick secondary cell walls.

Why?

(8)  Meristems are growth zones of unspecialized cells whose main function is to divide.

Why?

(9)  A fundamental difference between roots and shoots has to do with branching.

Why?

(10)  Dormancy is an example of a structural plant adaptation to get water and nutrients.

Why?


 
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