Gross Anatomy-study of body structures visible to the naked eye, science homework help

i need someone who is great with anatomy & physiology who can score an A on my lab quiz.

chapter 1 lab lecture notes:

Chapter 1 notes Lab

Anatomy-structure of body parts

Physiology-function of body parts

Anatomy

Gross Anatomy-study of body structures visible to the naked eye

  • Regional-study of structures in a particular region (head and neck region)
  • Systematic-study of body systems (cardiovascular system…)
  • Surface-study of internal structures as they relate to overlying skin (tonsils)

Microscopic-study of body parts not visible to the naked eye

  • Cytology-study of cells
  • Histology-study of tissues

-Study Pg. 7 Fig 1.3 regional terms (ALL)

Organ systems…structural organizations of the body

  • Cell-basic unit of any living organism/4 types seen in the body: epithelium cells, muscle cells, nerve cells, connective tissue cells
  • Tissue-when similar cells get together, they form a tissue (muscle cell form muscle tissue)
  • Organ-when different types of tissues come together, they form an organ. Most organs contain all 4 types of tissues (heart consists of a lining made up of epithelium and has muscle tissue and CT outside the heart)
  • Organ system-When many organs which perform similar functions get together, they form an

organ system.

  • Organism

Organ Systems

-Cardiovascular-veins and arteries

-Respiratory-lungs

-Integumentary- skin, hair, and nails. Vitamin A: vision. Mineral that helps skin, hair, and nails grow is biotin.

-Digestive (gastrointestinal)-stomach, intestines, liver, oral cavity, esophagus

-Urinary-bladder, kidneys, ureter, urethra

-Endocrine- pineal gland, thyroid gland, pancreas

-Nervous-brain, spinal cord

-Reproductive:

-Skeletal-bones

-Muscular-muscles

-Lymphatic/Immune-lymph nodes, spleen

Characteristics of a living organism

-Contained-

-Movement

-Irritability

-Digestion and metabolism

-Excretion

-Reproduction- In order to reproduce, you need a nucleus, therefore red blood cells do no reproduce since NO nucleus.

-Growth

Maintaining Life…

-Oxygen-20% of the air we breathe

-Water-60-80% is water. Most abundant chemical substance in the body.

-Nutrients-Food, vitamins-Vitamin A (vision), mineral (biotin)

-Normal body temperature-98.6 degrees

-Atmospheric pressure

Homeostasis

-Maintain the constancy of the stable internal environment

-Nervous and Endocrine systems primarily involved

-Dynamic equilibrium

Negative feedback-ongoing process/2 examples: starvation, home heating. Purpose is to prevent sudden and severe changes within the body

-Positive feedback-not an ongoing process/examples: blood clotting (Vitamin K), nursing a baby, labor contractions

Anatomical Position and Direction

Anatomical Position-standing erect, feet slightly apart (together), palms facing forward, arms at sides, thumbs pointing away from the body (lateral).

-Axial-head, neck, trunk

-Appendicular- arms and legs (limbs)

Planes

-Median Sagittal- Left/Right

-Transverse horizontal-Superior/Inferior

-Coronal/Frontal-Anterior/Posterior

Directional terms (study Fig 1.2 p. 6)

-Medial-towards the midline

-Lateral-away from the midline

-Superior-towards the head

-Inferior-towards the feet

-Proximal-nearer the trunk (limbs)

-Distal-further from the trunk (limbs)

-Superficial-toward the surface

-Deep-away from the surface

-Anterior/Ventral-front

-Posterior/Dorsal-back

Cavities

-Dorsal cavity-brain and spinal cord

Ventral cavity:

Thoracic cavity: lungs & heart (pericardial cavity)

-Abdominopelvic cavity: liver, spleen, stomach, intestines

-Abdominopelvic cavity- separated from thoracic cavity by diaphragm.

Pelvic cavity: bladder, reproductive organs and rectum.

-4 structures not in a cavity: diaphragm, bone, skeletal muscles, skin.

KNOW figure 1.6 page 10

Right hypochondriac and epigastric = liver

Left hypochondriac and epigastric= stomach and spleen

Lumbar region= kidneys

 
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