As a result of the terrorist attacks of 9/11, the federal government began reviewing what had happened and what needed to be done to prevent such attacks in the future (Bullock, Haddow. & Coppola, 2013, 50). There were changes to homeland security that affected governmental organizations. First was the creation of the Department of Homeland Security and the implementation of the PATRIOT Act. Nine days after the attacks, President Bush announced the establishment of the Office of Homeland Security by executive order. The office would be led by Pennsylvania Governor Tom Ridge (Bullock, Haddow. & Coppola, 2013, 51). Funding was minimal and there was no staff in place at that time. The Homeland Security Council was also established at the same time to develop and implement strategies for national security. The Department of Homeland Security brought together 22 agencies and more than one hundred bureaus and subagencies (Bullock, Haddow. & Coppola, 2013, 16). In order to mature and strengthen homeland security, the Department of Homeland Security has established objectives to accomplish this, which include integrating intelligence, information sharing, and operations; enhancing partnerships and outreach; conducting homeland security research and development; training and exercising frontline operations and first responders; and strengthening service delivery and managing DHS resources (Bullock, Haddow. & Coppola, 2013, 25).
There are five core missions and goals that are identified by the Department of Homeland Security. The first mission is to prevent terrorism and enhance security (Bullock, Haddow. & Coppola, 2013, 12). The goals of this mission are to prevent terrorist attacks; prevent and protect against the unauthorized acquisition or use of chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear materials and capabilities; and reduce the risk to the nation’s critical infrastructure, key leadership, and events. The second mission is to secure and manage our borders (Bullock, Haddow. & Coppola, 2013, 13). The goals of this mission are to secure U.S. land, air, and sea borders and approaches; safeguard and expedite lawful trade and travel; and disrupt and dismantle transnational criminal organizations and other illicit actors. The third mission is to enforce and administer immigration laws with the goals to strengthen and effectively administer the immigration system and to prevent unlawful immigration. The fourth mission is to safeguard and secure cyberspace. This is accomplished through the goals of strengthening the security and resilience of critical infrastructure; securing the federal civilian government information technology enterprise; advancing law enforcement, incident response, and reporting capabilities; and strengthening the ecosystem. The final mission is to strengthening national preparedness and resilience. The goals of this mission are to enhance national preparedness; mitigate hazards and vulnerabilities; ensure effective emergency response; and enable rapid recovery.
On October 26, 2001, the PATRIOT Act of 2001was signed into law by President Bush as a direct result of the terrorist acts involving homeland security (Bullock, Haddow. & Coppola, 2013, 51). This act gave law enforcement agencies the proper legal authority to collect information on suspected terrorists and terrorist organizations, to deter terrorists from entering and operating within the United States, and to limit the ability of terrorists to engage in activities such as money-laundering that are used to support terrorist activities.
Bullock, J. A., Haddow, G. D. & Coppola, D. P. (2013).Introduction to homelandsecurity(5th ed.). Waltham, MA: Elsevier Inc
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