Anatomy & physiology 211

1.  The main component of the plasma membrane, the  ______________________ molecule, has both polar and non-polar areas.  The non-polar portions of this molecule form the hydrophobic barrier between the hydrophilic fluid inside the cell, also known as __________________ and the hydrophilic fluid outside the cell, also known as __________________________.

2.  Microvilli increase _____________________ while similar looking structures called cilia _______________________________.

3.  Rough ER is rough because it contains _________________ that produce these workhorses of the cell ________________________________. 

4.  The ‘post office’ of the cell is the _________________, so-called because its job is to ____________________________________________.

5.  ______________________ is the process that copies the message from DNA to mRNA and it occurs in this part of the cell ___________________.  Translation, on the other hand uses the mRNA copy to assemble __________________ in this part of the cell ___________________. 

6.  Name 2 of the 6 types of proteins found on the plasma membrane and state their function.

a.  ____________________________________________________

b.  ____________________________________________________

7.  Is the DNA in the chromatin or chromosome format? 

a.  A cell in metaphase _____________________

b.  A cell in interphase _____________________

c.  DNA that can be accessed for transcription ______________________

8.  State the location in the cell and be specific.  Some may be in multiple places. 

a.  DNA  ________________________________

b.  tRNA ________________________________

c.  mRNA _______________________________

d.  rRNA ________________________________

e.  ribosomes ___________________________

f.  transcription _________________________

g.  translation ___________________________

9.  Diffusion, osmosis, or transport?  And what moves where?

a.  Red blood cell in 10% NaCl ____________________________

b.  Na+ ions inside a cell _________________________________

c.  Body perfume on your instructor ______________________

d.  Glucose outside a cell _______________________________

10.  Name 4 factors that influence the rate of diffusion. _______________________

______________________________________________________________________________

11.  What is the transmembrane potential and what protein establishes one? ______________________________________________________________________________

12.  Draw 4 cells below, label them with the 4 stages of mitosis and draw what the chromosomes look like at each stage. 

_______________  _______________  ____________________________

   

 

Critical Thinking, Clinical Application, Case Report

13. In anatomy and chemistry lab many students are exposed to chemical preservatives, phenol, formaldehyde, alcohol. Our cells break down these toxins very effectively. What cellular organelle is responsible for this?

14. A bacterial infection in intestine tract blocks many membrane proteins  in epithelial cells and interferes with salt  absorption but not water exchange. Do you expect this person shows the sign of diarrhea or constipation, Why?

15. Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by misfolded proteins related to specific membrane chloride channel.  The result is accumulation of thick mucus that compromises several organs including lung. The thick and sticky mucus clogs the tubes that carry air in and out of your lungs. This can cause; A persistent cough that produces: thick spit and mucus, Wheezing, Breathlessness, A decreased ability to exercise, Repeated lung infections, Inflamed nasal passages or a stuffy nose and death, You suspect which organelle in Cell is responsible for this disease?

16. Michael was a pleasant, happy infant who seemed to be developing normally until about six months of age. Able to roll over and sit for a few seconds, suddenly he seemed to lose those abilities. Soon, he no longer turned and smiled at his mother’s voice, as he had before, and he did not seem as interested in his mobile as he once was. Concerned about Michael’s reversals in development, his anxious parents took him to the doctor. It took exams by several specialists to diagnose Michael’s disease. A neurologist clinched her suspicion of Tay-Sachs by looking into Michael’s eyes, where she saw the telltale cherry red spot indicating the illness. A look at his cells provided further clues– tiny enzyme-filled sacs, were swollen to huge proportions while lacking one of the forty types of enzymes for degrading materials, resulting in a disease that built up lipid material on his nerve cells. His nervous system would continue to fail, and he would be paralyzed and unable to see or hear by the time he died, before the age of four. Which cellular organelle was swollen under microscope and lacked the enzyme?

17. Oncovin is a drug that damages mitotic spindle. Why such a drug can be used as a chemotherapeutic drug used to treat cancer?

18. A sterile male patient with respiratory problem have a genetic  disease  which affects both cilia and flagella . You suspect the affected gene is related to …………………………………………..in cells

 
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