Which of the following have standard enthalpies of formation values that are not zero: Ar(g), Br2(l), H(g), W(s), Hg(s), Li2(g)?  Explain.

Which of the following have standard enthalpies of formation values that are not zero: Ar(g), Br2(l), H(g), W(s), Hg(s), Li2(g)?  Explain.

When ammonia is formed according to the following equation:

®2 NH3(g)

the standard enthalpy of reaction (as written) is -92.6 kJ/mol. If 25.4 kg of ammonia (NH3) is formed under standard conditions, what is the enthalpy change?  Is this reaction exothermic or endothermic? Explain.

Alcoholic fermentation is the process by which carbohydrates decompose into ethanol and carbon dioxide. The reaction is multi-step and complex, but the overall reaction is

®2 C2H5OH(l) + 2 CO2(g)

Given that the standard enthalpies of formation are C6H12O6(s) = -1274.5 kJ/mol, C2H5OH(l) = -277.0 kJ/mol, and CO2(g) = -393.5 kJ/mol, calculate the standard enthalpy for the fermentation reaction.

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