we should always use an ampersand when citing multiple authors instead of writing out ‘and’

Credit should be given to more than just material in quotes. Credit should be given to the author of any ideas that you replicate or share with others. Quotation marks are only required when you use the author’s exact words, but whether you are citing the information verbatim or paraphrase it, certain information is required to give the appropriate credit. At the very minimum, you should use the author’s last name and year of publication (when writing in APA format), but if it’s a direct quote, the location of the quote is required as well (i.e. page or paragraph number, depending on the source).

The first example of where credit was not given correctly is from an article by Kirk Hanson and Matt Savage (2015). There isn’t a single citation or reference to any other work. While it is possible that the information presented in the article was based on personal experience, it is not likely that none of the information came from an outside source.

The second example reminded me of the first in that there is no credit given to anyone. Additionally, the author isn’t even an expect on the subject but rather an essay writing specialist; therefore, as with the first article, it’s unlikely the information came from personal knowledge. Houstin (n.d.) must have used others sources to put the article together.

If we are to provide just general examples of when a citation would be incorrect, I’ve done that below as well.

Correct: (Hanson & Savage, 2015)

Incorrect: (Hanson and Savage, 2015) – we should always use an ampersand when citing multiple authors instead of writing out ‘and’

Incorrect: (Hanson, K. & Savage, M., 2015) – First initials are not required when writing in-text citations; only last names are required.


Hanson, K. & Savage, M. (2015, October 26). Ethics in youth sports. Retrieved from https://www.scu.edu/ethics/focus-areas/more/resources/ethics-in-youth-sports/

Houstin, D. (n.d.). Ethics in youth sports. Retrieved from https://www.mentaltoughnesstrainer.com/youth-sports-ethics/


Good evening,

Giving credit when credit is due is  very important  and useful for several reasons. It adds creditability to your work, and that your work has ethics. It gives credit to the original author and their ideas you may see as useful.  Most of all it avoids you from unintentionally plagiarizing  their work. Giving credit applies to materials in books and ideas.  To ensure credit is given properly we have to give the authors name and title with year. Two examples where this is not done correctly is when citing  work with multiple authors, writers sometimes use the word ‘and’ instead of using the ampersand ‘&’.

Incorrect: (Smith and Johnson, 2012)

Correct: (Smith & Johnson, 2012)

When there is more than one reference used in a single sentence they should be listed in alphabetical order in the in-text citation

Incorrect: (Shrouder, 2015; Abde, 2013; Leila, 2008)

(Shrouder, 2015) (Leila, 2008) (Adbe, 2013)

Correct: (Abde, 2013; Leila, 2008; Shrouder, 2015)

4B (Review your classmate’s survey questions for clarity. In your replies to your classmates, review their survey questions and make sure they are asking what they need to ask to collect the desired information and that they are clear in their presentation.  Offer suggestions for additional questions, or clarifications to their posted questions. This is to assist them, and you, in survey construction)



Coaches and trainers are needed for athletes to maintain positive mental/physical health and security.

For my survey questions, I would ask:

1. Do you believe athletes should have the same privacy as in a doctor’s office?

2. Do you think athletic trainers should uphold information from coaches or other players?

3. Did you trust your teachers or coaches growing up?

4. Is winning more important than pain?


Safe exercise, for youths, alleviates symptoms of mental illness.

Do youths maintain exercise?

What, for youths, is associated with concussions?

How to address mental health, among youths?

Does physical activity benefit mental health, for youths?



Variability in the collective behaviour of England fans at Euro2004: ‘Hooliganism’, public order policing and social change This is a sociological study performed on English soccer crowds at the 2004 championship. I  this case ir researchers wanted to see in what was could they decrease the levels of violent be and possibility of a riot. They hypothesized that it could be do e through train n the crowd top self regulated or that it could be done through crowd policing. In big games English soccer fans have been known to be more rowdy than other countries.  To fin f2f pit why a study was done through survey and compared to a eleborated social identity model of crowd behavior (ESIM). The study found that English fans were simply more passionate about the game than others and that the violent crowd behavior was learned. They concluded that crowd control was best handled through change in policy and policing rules rather than expecting the crowd to show self-control. I found the study to be unique in how it examined the motive behind the behavior and not just how to change it. I agree that with more passionate crowds you see a rise in violence and this study can be applied to other country and show the same results. References Stott, C., Adang, O., Livingstone, A., & Schreiber, M. (2007). Variability in the collective behaviour of England fans at Euro2004: ‘Hooliganism’, public order policing and social change. European Journal of Social Psychology, 37(1), 75–100. https://doi-org.ezproxy2.apus.edu/10.1002/ejsp.338


The Characteristics of Coaches that Verbally or Physically Abuse Young Athletes.

This study was done to determine the characteristics of coaches who verbally or physically abuse youth athletes in team sports. Using a self-reported questionnaire to survey 1,283 coaches in Miyagi prefecture, Japan. Unfortunately, the response rate was only 24%. To asses the verbal or physical abuse, the survey asked questions about abusive behaviors. The author concluded that the coaches in this study who are verbally abusive had lower education, experienced verbal or physical abuse, and were dissatisfied with athletes’ attitudes. The author also determined that the physically abusive coaches had experienced similar abuse themselves, accepted verbal or physical abuse to improve athletic skills, and more extensive coaching experience.

Based on the data provided in the article, we can compare the author’s interpretation of the results against Initially, when reading this research article, I thought a self-reporting questionnaire would have dishonest results. Then after analyzing the data from the survey, it was apparent that verbal and physical abuse is highly accepted by the coaches leading me to believe the test results were their honest perceptions. The purpose of the hypothesis was addressed. However, I think this study could have been better by assessing the athletes as well. Including the athletes in the study would help to get a better picture of the problem. Something that I got from the study was that it opened my eyes to the high acceptance of abusive behaviors as a means to improve their teams’ abilities. Sports can get intense at times, and we all want to win. However, I think we can all agree that this type of behavior is unacceptable.

Yabe, Y., Hagiwara, Y., Sekiguchi, T., Momma, H., Tsuchiya, M., Kuroki, K., … Yabe, Y. (2018).The Characteristics of Coaches that Verbally or Physically Abuse Young Athletes. The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine, 244(4), 297–304, https://doi.org/10.1620/tjem.244.297

Looking for a similar assignment? Get help from our qualified nursing experts!